Kyma

In a nutshell

Kyma allows you to connect applications and third-party services in a cloud-native environment. Use it to create extensions for the existing systems, regardless of the language they are written in. Customize extensions with minimum effort and time devoted to learning their configuration details.

With Kyma in hand, you can focus purely on coding since it ensures the following out-of-the-box functionalities:

  • Service-to-service communication and proxying (Istio Service Mesh)
  • In-built monitoring, tracing, and logging (Grafana, Prometheus, Jaeger, Logspout, OK Log)
  • Secure authentication and authorization (Dex, Service Identity, TLS, Role Based Access Control)
  • The catalog of services to choose from (Service Catalog, Service Brokers)
  • The development platform to run lightweight functions in a cost-efficient and scalable way (Serverless, Kubeless)
  • The endpoint to register Events and APIs of external applications (Application Connector)
  • The messaging channel to receive Events, enrich them, and trigger business flows using lambdas or services (Event Bus, NATS)
  • CLI supported by the intuitive UI (Console)

Main features

Major open-source and cloud-native projects, such as Istio, NATS, Kubeless, and Prometheus, constitute the cornerstone of Kyma. Its uniqueness, however, lies in the "glue" that holds these components together. Kyma collects those cutting-edge solutions in one place and combines them with the in-house developed features that allow you to connect and extend your enterprise applications easily and intuitively.

Kyma allows you to extend and customize the functionality of your products in a quick and modern way, using serverless computing or microservice architecture. The extensions and customizations you create are decoupled from the core applications, which means that:

  • Deployments are quick.
  • Scaling is independent from the core applications.
  • The changes you make can be easily reverted without causing downtime of the production system.

Last but not least, Kyma is highly cost-efficient. All Kyma native components and the connected open-source tools are written in Go. It ensures low memory consumption and reduced maintenance costs compared to applications written in other programming languages such as Java.

Technology stack

The entire solution is containerized and runs on a Kubernetes cluster. Customers can access it easily using a single sign on solution based on the Dex identity provider integrated with any OpenID Connect-compliant identity provider or a SAML2-based enterprise authentication server.

The communication between services is handled by the Istio Service Mesh component which enables security, traffic management, routing, resilience (retry, circuit breaker, timeouts), monitoring, and tracing without the need to change the application code. Build your applications using services provisioned by one of the many Service Brokers compatible with the Open Service Broker API, and monitor the speed and efficiency of your solutions using Prometheus, which gives you the most accurate and up-to-date monitoring data.

Key components

Kyma is built of numerous components but these three drive it forward:

  • Application Connector connects external on-premise or cloud-native applications with Kyma and registers their APIs and Events that internal applications or functions can later consume.
  • Serverless is based on Kubeless and allows you to write short code snippets, known as functions or lambdas, that consume the Events exposed by the Application Connector and use external services provided by the Service Catalog to trigger certain business logic.
  • Service Catalog offers third-party services in the form of ServiceClasses exposed by the Service Brokers that a given function can consume to perform certain actions.

This basic use case shows how the three components work together in Kyma:

key-components

Kyma and Knative - brothers in arms

Integration with Knative is a step towards Kyma modularization and the "slimming" approach which aims to extract some out-of-the-box components and provide you with a more flexible choice of tools to use in Kyma.

Both Kyma and Knative are Kubernetes and Istio-based systems that offer development and eventing platforms. The main difference, however, is their focus. While Knative concentrates more on providing the building blocks for running serverless workloads, Kyma focuses on integrating those blocks with external services and applications.

The diagram shows dependencies between the components:

kyma-knative

The nearest plan for Kyma and Knative cooperation is to replace Serverless in Kyma with the Knative technology. Other planned changes concerning Kyma and Knative cooperation involve providing configuration options to allow Istio deployed with Knative to work on Kyma, and extracting Kyma eventing to fully integrate it with Knative eventing. The eventing integration will provide more flexibility on deciding which messaging implementation to use (NATS, Kafka, or any other).

How to start

When you already know what Kyma is and what components it consists of, you can start using it. Minikube allows you to run Kyma locally, develop, and test your solutions on a small scale before you push them to a cluster. With the Getting Started guides in hand, you can start developing in a matter of minutes.

Read, learn, and try on your own to:

Components

Kyma is built on the foundation of the best and most advanced open-source projects which make up the components readily available for customers to use. This section describes the Kyma components.

Service Catalog

The Service Catalog lists all of the services available to Kyma users through the registered Service Brokers. Using the Service Catalog, you can provision new services in the Kyma Kubernetes cluster and create bindings between the provisioned service and an application.

Service Mesh

The Service Mesh is an infrastructure layer that handles service-to-service communication, proxying, service discovery, traceability, and security independent of the code of the services. Kyma uses the Istio Service Mesh that is customized for the specific needs of the implementation.

Security

Kyma security enforces RBAC (Role Based Access Control) in the cluster. Dex handles the identity management and identity provider integration. It allows you to integrate any OpenID Connect or SAML2-compliant identity provider with Kyma using connectors. Additionally, Dex provides a static user store which gives you more flexibility when managing access to your cluster.

Service Brokers

Service Brokers are Open Service Broker API-compatible servers that manage the lifecycle of one or more services. Each Service Broker registered in Kyma presents the services it offers to the Service Catalog. You can provision these services on a cluster level through the Service Catalog. Out of the box, Kyma comes with three Service Brokers. You can register more Open Service Broker API-compatible Service Brokers in Kyma and provision the services they offer using the Service Catalog.

Application Connector

The Application Connector is a proprietary Kyma solution. This endpoint is the Kyma side of the connection between Kyma and the external solutions. The Application Connector allows you to register the APIs and the Event Catalog, which lists all of the available events, of the connected solution. Additionally, the Application Connector proxies the calls from Kyma to external APIs in a secure way.

Event Bus

Kyma Event Bus receives Events from external solutions and triggers the business logic created with lambda functions and services in Kyma. The Event Bus is based on the NATS Streaming open source messaging system for cloud-native applications.

Serverless

The Kyma Serverless component allows you to reduce the implementation and operation effort of an application to the absolute minimum. Kyma Serverless provides a platform to run lightweight functions in a cost-efficient and scalable way using JavaScript and Node.js. Kyma Serverless is built on the Kubeless framework, which allows you to deploy lambda functions, and uses the NATS messaging system that monitors business events and triggers functions accordingly.

Monitoring

Kyma comes bundled with tools that give you the most accurate and up-to-date monitoring data. Prometheus open source monitoring and alerting toolkit provides this data, which is consumed by different add-ons, including Grafana for analytics and monitoring, and Alertmanager for handling alerts.

Tracing

The tracing in Kyma uses the Jaeger distributed tracing system. Use it to analyze performance by scrutinizing the path of the requests sent to and from your service. This information helps you optimize the latency and performance of your solution.

Logging

Logging in Kyma uses Logspout and OK Log. Use a plaintext or a regular expression to fetch logs from Pods using the OK Log UI.

Environments

An Environment is a custom Kyma security and organizational unit based on the concept of Kubernetes Namespaces. Kyma Environments allow you to divide the cluster into smaller units to use for different purposes, such as development and testing.

Kyma Environment is a user-created Namespace marked with the env: "true" label. The Kyma UI only displays the Namespaces marked with the env: "true" label.

Default Kyma Namespaces

Kyma comes configured with default Namespaces dedicated for system-related purposes. The user cannot modify or remove any of these Namespaces.

  • kyma-system - This Namespace contains all of the Kyma Core components.
  • kyma-integration - This Namespace contains all of the Application Connector components responsible for the integration of Kyma and external solutions.
  • kyma-installer - This Namespace contains all of the Kyma installer components, objects, and Secrets.
  • istio-system - This Namespace contains all of the Istio-related components.

Environments in Kyma

Kyma comes with three Environments ready for you to use. These environments are:

  • production
  • qa
  • stage

Create a new Environment

To create a new Environment, create a Namespace and mark it with the env: "true" label. Use this command to do that in a single step:

$ cat <<EOF | kubectl create -f -
apiVersion: v1
kind: Namespace
metadata:
  name: my-environment
  labels:
    env: "true"
EOF

Initially, the system deploys two template roles: kyma-reader-role and kyma-admin-role. The controller finds the template roles by filtering available roles in the namespace kyma-system by the label env: "true". The controller copies these roles into the Environment.

Testing Kyma

For testing, the Kyma components use the Helm test concept. Place your test under the templates directory as a Pod definition that specifies a container with a given command to run.

Add a new test

The system bases tests on the Helm broker concept with one modification: adding a Pod label. Before you create a test, see the official Chart Tests documentation. Then, add the "helm-chart-test": "true" label to your Pod template.

See the following example of a test prepared for Dex:

# Chart tree
dex
├── Chart.yaml
├── README.md
├── templates
│   ├── tests
│   │   └── test-dex-connection.yaml
│   ├── dex-deployment.yaml
│   ├── dex-ingress.yaml
│   ├── dex-rbac-role.yaml
│   ├── dex-service.yaml
│   ├── pre-install-dex-account.yaml
│   ├── pre-install-dex-config-map.yaml
│   └── pre-install-dex-secrets.yaml
└── values.yaml

The test adds a new test-dex-connection.yaml under the templates/tests directory. This simple test calls the Dex endpoint with cURL, defined as follows:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: "test-{{ template "fullname" . }}-connection-dex"
  annotations:
    "helm.sh/hook": test-success
  labels:
      "helm-chart-test": "true" # ! Our customization
spec:
  hostNetwork: true
  containers:
  - name: "test-{{ template "fullname" . }}-connection-dex"
    image: tutum/curl:alpine
    command: ["/usr/bin/curl"]
    args: [
      "--fail",
      "http://dex-service.{{ .Release.Namespace }}.svc.cluster.local:5556/.well-known/openid-configuration"
    ]
  restartPolicy: Never

Test execution

All tests created for charts under /resources/core/ run automatically after starting Kyma. If any of the tests fail, the system prints the Pod logs in the terminal, then deletes all the Pods.

NOTE: If you run Kyma locally, by default, the system does not take into account the test's exit code. As a result, the system does not terminate Kyma Docker container, and you can still access it. To force a termination in case of failing tests, use --exit-on-test-fail flag when executing run.sh script.

CI propagates the exit status of tests. If any test fails, the whole CI job fails as well.

Follow the same guidelines to add a test which is not a part of any core component. However, for test execution, see the Run a test manually section in this document.

Run a test manually

To run a test manually, use the testing.sh script located in the /installation/scripts/ directory which runs all tests defined for core releases. If any of the tests fail, the system prints the Pod logs in the terminal, then deletes all the Pods.

Another option is to run a Helm test directly on your release.

$ helm test {your_release_name}

You can also run your test on custom releases. If you do this, remember to always delete the Pods after a test ends.

Charts

Kyma uses Helm charts to deliver single components and extensions, as well as the core components. This document contains information about the chart-related technical concepts, dependency management to use with Helm charts, and chart examples.

Manage dependencies with Init Containers

The ADR 003: Init Containers for dependency management document declares the use of Init Containers as the primary dependency mechanism.

Init Containers present a set of distinctive behaviors:

  • They always run to completion.
  • They start sequentially, only after the preceding Init Container completes successfully. If any of the Init Containers fails, the Pod restarts. This is always true, unless the restartPolicy equals never.

Readiness Probes ensure that the essential containers are ready to handle requests before you expose them. At a minimum, probes are defined for every container accessible from outside of the Pod. It is recommended to pair the Init Containers with readiness probes to provide a basic dependency management solution.

Examples

Here are some examples:

  1. Generic
apiVersion: apps/v1beta2
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: nginx-deployment
spec:
  replicas: 3
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: nginx
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: nginx
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: nginx
        image: nginx:1.7.9
        ports:
        - containerPort: 80
        readinessProbe:
          httpGet:
            path: /healthz
            port: 80
          initialDelaySeconds: 30
          timeoutSeconds: 1
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: myapp-pod
spec:
  initContainers:
  - name: init-myservice
    image: busybox
    command: ['sh', '-c', 'until nslookup nginx; do echo waiting for nginx; sleep 2; done;']
  containers:
  - name: myapp-container
    image: busybox
    command: ['sh', '-c', 'echo The app is running! && sleep 3600']
  1. Kyma
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: helm-broker
  labels:
    app: helm-broker
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: helm-broker
  strategy:
    type: RollingUpdate
    rollingUpdate:
      maxUnavailable: 0
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: helm-broker
    spec:

      initContainers:
      - name: init-helm-broker
        image: eu.gcr.io/kyma-project/alpine-net:0.2.74
        command: ['sh', '-c', 'until nc -zv core-catalog-controller-manager.kyma-system.svc.cluster.local 8080; do echo waiting for etcd service; sleep 2; done;']

      containers:
      - name: helm-broker
        ports:
        - containerPort: 6699
        readinessProbe:
          tcpSocket:
            port: 6699
          failureThreshold: 3
          initialDelaySeconds: 10
          periodSeconds: 3
          successThreshold: 1
          timeoutSeconds: 2

Support for the Helm wait flag

High level Kyma components, such as core, come as Helm charts. These charts are installed as part of a single Helm release. To provide ordering for these core components, the Helm client runs with the --wait flag. As a result, Tiller waits for the readiness of all of the components, and then evaluates the readiness.

For Deployments, set the strategy to RollingUpdate and set the MaxUnavailable value to a number lower than the number of replicas. This setting is necessary, as readiness in Helm v2.10.0 is fulfilled if the number of replicas in ready state is not lower than the expected number of replicas:

ReadyReplicas >= TotalReplicas - MaxUnavailable

Chart installation details

The Tiller server performs the chart installation process. This is the order of operations that happen during the chart installation:

  • resolve values
  • recursively gather all templates with the corresponding values
  • sort all templates
  • render all templates
  • separate hooks and manifests from files into sorted lists
  • aggregate all valid manifests from all sub-charts into a single manifest file
  • execute PreInstall hooks
  • create a release using the ReleaseModule API and, if requested, wait for the actual readiness of the resources
  • execute PostInstall hooks

Notes

All notes are based on Helm v2.10.0 implementation and are subject to change in feature releases.

  • Regardless of how complex a chart is, and regardless of the number of sub-charts it references or consists of, it's always evaluated as one. This means that each Helm release is compiled into a single Kubernetes manifest file when applied on API server.

  • Hooks are parsed in the same order as manifest files and returned as a single, global list for the entire chart. For each hook the weight is calculated as a part of this sort.

  • Manifests are sorted by Kind. You can find the list and the order of the resources on the Kubernetes Tiller website.

Glossary

  • resource is any document in a chart recognized by Helm or Tiller. This includes manifests, hooks, and notes.
  • template is a valid Go template. Many of the resources are also Go templates.

Deploy with a private Docker registry

Docker is a free tool to deploy applications and servers. To run an application on Kyma, provide the application binary file as a Docker image located in a Docker registry. Use the DockerHub public registry to upload your Docker images for free access to the public. Use a private Docker registry to ensure privacy, increased security, and better availability.

This document shows how to deploy a Docker image from your private Docker registry to the Kyma cluster.

Details

The deployment to Kyma from a private registry differs from the deployment from a public registry. You must provide Secrets accessible in Kyma, and referenced in the .yaml deployment file. This section describes how to deploy an image from a private Docker registry to Kyma. Follow the deployment steps:

  1. Create a Secret resource.
  2. Write your deployment file.
  3. Submit the file to the Kyma cluster.

Create a Secret for your private registry

A Secret resource passes your Docker registry credentials to the Kyma cluster in an encrypted form. For more information on Secrets, refer to the Kubernetes documentation.

To create a Secret resource for your Docker registry, run the following command:

kubectl create secret docker-registry {secret-name} --docker-server={registry FQN} --docker-username={user-name} --docker-password={password} --docker-email={registry-email} --namespace={namespace}  

Refer to the following example:

kubectl create secret docker-registry docker-registry-secret --docker-server=myregistry:5000 --docker-username=root --docker-password=password --docker-email=example@github.com --namespace=production

The Secret is associated with a specific Namespace. In the example, the Namespace is production. However, you can modify the Secret to point to any desired Namespace.

Write your deployment file

  1. Create the deployment file with the .yml extension and name it deployment.yml.

  2. Describe your deployment in the .yml file. Refer to the following example:

apiVersion: apps/v1beta2
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  namespace: production # {production/stage/qa}
  name: my-deployment # Specify the deployment name.
  annotations:
    sidecar.istio.io/inject: true
spec:
  replicas: 3 # Specify your replica - how many instances you want from that deployment.
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: app-name # Specify the app label. It is optional but it is a good practice.
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: app-name # Specify app label. It is optional but it is a good practice.
        version: v1 # Specify your version.
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: container-name # Specify a meaningful container name.
        image: myregistry:5000/user-name/image-name:latest # Specify your image {registry FQN/your-username/your-space/image-name:image-version}.
        ports:
          - containerPort: 80 # Specify the port to your image.
      imagePullSecrets:
        - name: docker-registry-secret # Specify the same Secret name you generated in the previous step for this Namespace.
        - name: example-secret-name # Specify your Namespace Secret, named `example-secret-name`.

  1. Submit you deployment file using this command:
kubectl apply -f deployment.yml

Your deployment is now running on the Kyma cluster.

Install Kyma locally from the release

This Installation guide shows developers how to quickly deploy Kyma locally on a Mac or Linux from the latest release. Kyma installs locally using a proprietary installer based on a Kubernetes operator. The document provides prerequisites, instructions on how to install Kyma locally and verify the deployment, as well as the troubleshooting tips.

Prerequisites

To run Kyma locally, clone this Git repository to your machine and check out the latest release.

Additionally, download these tools:

Virtualization:

NOTE: To work with Kyma, use only the provided scripts and commands. Kyma does not work on a basic Minikube cluster that you can start using the minikube start command or stop with the minikube stop command. If you don't need Kyma on Minikube anymore, remove the cluster with the minikube delete command.

Set up certificates

Kyma comes with a local wildcard self-signed server.crt certificate that you can find under the /installation/certs/workspace/raw/ directory of the kyma repository. Trust it on the OS level for convenience.

Follow these steps to "always trust" the Kyma certificate on Mac:

  1. Change the working directory to installation:
    cd installation
    
  2. Run this command:
    sudo security add-trusted-cert -d -r trustRoot -k /Library/Keychains/System.keychain certs/workspace/raw/server.crt
    

NOTE: "Always trusting" the certificate does not work with Mozilla Firefox.

To access the Application Connector and connect an external solution to the local deployment of Kyma, you must add the certificate to the trusted certificate storage of your programming environment. Read the Access Application Connector on local Kyma in the Application Connector topic to learn more.

Install Kyma on Minikube

You can install Kyma either with all core subcomponents or only with the selected ones. This section describes how to install Kyma with all core subcomponents. To learn how to install only the specific ones, see the Install subcomponents document for details.

NOTE: Running the installation script deletes any previously existing cluster from your Minikube.

To install Kyma, follow these steps:

  1. Change the working directory to installation:

    cd installation
    
  2. Use the following command to run Kubernetes locally using Minikube:

    $ ./scripts/minikube.sh --domain "kyma.local" --vm-driver "hyperkit"
    
  3. Kyma installation requires increased permissions granted by the cluster-admin role. To bind the role to the default ServiceAccount, run the following command:

    $ kubectl apply -f ./resources/default-sa-rbac-role.yaml
    
  4. Wait until the kube-dns Pod is ready. Run this script to setup Tiller:

    $ ./scripts/install-tiller.sh
    
  5. Configure the Kyma installation using the local configuration file from the 0.5.0 release:

    $ kubectl apply -f https://github.com/kyma-project/kyma/releases/download/0.5.0/kyma-config-local.yaml
    
  6. To trigger the installation process, label the kyma-installation custom resource:

    $ kubectl label installation/kyma-installation action=install
    
  7. By default, the Kyma installation is a background process, which allows you to perform other tasks in the terminal window. Nevertheless, you can track the progress of the installation by running this script:

    $ ./scripts/is-installed.sh
    

Read the Reinstall Kyma document to learn how to reinstall Kyma without deleting the cluster from Minikube. To learn how to test Kyma, see the Testing Kyma document.

Verify the deployment

Follow the guidelines in the subsections to confirm that your Kubernetes API Server is up and running as expected.

Access Kyma with CLI

Verify the cluster deployment with the kubectl command line interface (CLI).

Run this command to fetch all Pods in all Namespaces:

  kubectl get pods --all-namespaces

The command retrieves all Pods from all Namespaces, the status of the Pods, and their instance numbers. Check if the STATUS column shows Running for all Pods. If any of the Pods that you require do not start successfully, perform the installation again.

Access the Kyma console

Access your local Kyma instance through this link.

  • Click Login with Email and sign in with the `admin@kyma.cxemail address. Use the password contained in theadmin-userSecret located in thekyma-system` Namespace. To get the password, run:
kubectl get secret admin-user -n kyma-system -o jsonpath="{.data.password}" | base64 -D
  • Click the Environments section and select an Environment from the drop-down menu to explore Kyma further.

Access the Kubernetes Dashboard

Additionally, confirm that you can access your Kubernetes Dashboard. Run the following command to check the IP address on which Minikube is running:

minikube ip

The address of your Kubernetes Dashboard looks similar to this:

http://{ip-address}:30000

See the example of the website address:

http://192.168.64.44:30000

Troubleshooting

If the installer does not respond as expected, check the installation status using the is-installed.sh script with the --verbose flag added. Run:

scripts/is-installed.sh --verbose

Install Kyma locally from sources

This Installation guide shows developers how to quickly deploy Kyma on a Mac or Linux from local sources. Follow it if you want to use Kyma for development purposes.

Kyma installs locally using a proprietary installer based on a Kubernetes operator. The document describes only the installation part. For prerequisites, certificates setup, deployment validation, and troubleshooting steps, see the Install Kyma locally from the release document.

Install Kyma

To run Kyma locally, clone this Git repository to your machine.

To start the local installation, run the following command:

./installation/cmd/run.sh

This script sets up default parameters, starts Minikube, builds the Kyma-Installer, generates local configuration, creates the Installation custom resource, and sets up the Installer.

NOTE: See the Local installation scripts document for a detailed explanation of the run.sh script and the subscripts it triggers.

You can execute the installation/cmd/run.sh script with the following parameters:

  • --skip-minikube-start which skips the execution of the installation/scripts/minikube.sh script.
  • --vm-driver which points to either virtualbox or hiperkit, depending on your operating system.

Read the Reinstall Kyma document to learn how to reinstall Kyma without deleting the cluster from Minikube. To learn how to test Kyma, see the Testing Kyma document.

Install Kyma on a GKE cluster

This Installation guide shows developers how to quickly deploy Kyma on a Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) cluster. Kyma installs on a cluster using a proprietary installer based on a Kubernetes operator.

Prerequisites

DNS setup

Delegate the management of your domain to Google Cloud DNS. Follow these steps:

  1. Export the domain name, project name, and DNS zone name as environment variables. Run the commands listed below:

     export DOMAIN={YOUR_SUBDOMAIN}
     export DNS_NAME={YOUR_DOMAIN}.
     export PROJECT={YOUR_GOOGLE_PROJECT}
     export DNS_ZONE={YOUR_DNS_ZONE}
    
  2. Create a DNS-managed zone in your Google project. Run:

     gcloud dns --project=$PROJECT managed-zones create $DNS_ZONE --description= --dns-name=$DNS_NAME
    

    Alternatively, create it through the GCP UI. Navigate go to Network Services in the Network section, click Cloud DNS and select Create Zone.

  3. Delegate your domain to Google name servers.

    • Get the list of the name servers from the zone details. This is a sample list:

      ns-cloud-b1.googledomains.com.
      ns-cloud-b2.googledomains.com.
      ns-cloud-b3.googledomains.com.
      ns-cloud-b4.googledomains.com.
      
    • Set up your domain to use these name servers.

  4. Check if everything is set up correctly and your domain is managed by Google name servers. Run:

     host -t ns $DNS_NAME
    

    A successful response returns the list of the name servers you fetched from GCP.

Get the TLS certificate

  1. Create a folder for certificates. Run:
     mkdir letsencrypt
    
  2. Create a new service account and assign it to the dns.admin role. Run these commands:

     gcloud iam service-accounts create dnsmanager --display-name "dnsmanager"
    
     gcloud projects add-iam-policy-binding $PROJECT         --member serviceAccount:dnsmanager@$PROJECT.iam.gserviceaccount.com --role roles/dns.admin
    
  3. Generate an access key for this account in the letsencrypt folder. Run:

     gcloud iam service-accounts keys create ./letsencrypt/key.json --iam-account dnsmanager@$PROJECT.iam.gserviceaccount.com
    
  4. Run the Certbot Docker image with the letsencrypt folder mounted. Certbot uses the key to apply DNS challenge for the certificate request and stores the TLS certificates in that folder. Run:

     docker run -it --name certbot --rm         -v "$(pwd)/letsencrypt:/etc/letsencrypt"         certbot/dns-google         certonly         -m YOUR_EMAIL_HERE --agree-tos --no-eff-email         --dns-google         --dns-google-credentials /etc/letsencrypt/key.json         --server https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory         -d "*.$DOMAIN"
    
  5. Export the certificate and key as environment variables. Run these commands:

     export TLS_CERT=$(cat ./letsencrypt/live/$DOMAIN/fullchain.pem | base64 | sed 's/ /\ /g')
     export TLS_KEY=$(cat ./letsencrypt/live/$DOMAIN/privkey.pem | base64 | sed 's/ /\ /g')
    

Prepare the GKE cluster

  1. Select a name for your cluster and set it as an environment variable. Run:

     export CLUSTER_NAME={CLUSTER_NAME_YOU_WANT}
    
  2. Create a cluster in the europe-west1 region. Run:

     gcloud container --project "$PROJECT" clusters     create "$CLUSTER_NAME" --zone "europe-west1-b"     --cluster-version "1.10.7" --machine-type "n1-standard-2"     --addons HorizontalPodAutoscaling,HttpLoadBalancing,KubernetesDashboard
    
  3. Install Tiller on your GKE cluster. Run:

     kubectl apply -f installation/resources/tiller.yaml
    

Prepare the installation configuration file

Using the latest GitHub release

  1. Download the kyma-config-cluster file bundled with the latest Kyma release. Run:

    LATEST=$(curl https://github.com/kyma-project/kyma/releases/latest -I|grep Location:| rev | cut -d'/' -f1 | rev|tr -d '
    ')
    wget https://github.com/kyma-project/kyma/releases/download/$LATEST/kyma-config-cluster.yaml
    
  2. Update the file with the values from your environment variables. Run:

     cat kyma-config-cluster.yaml | sed -e "s/__DOMAIN__/$DOMAIN/g" |sed -e "s/__TLS_CERT__/$TLS_CERT/g" | sed -e "s/__TLS_KEY__/$TLS_KEY/g"|sed -e "s/__.*__//g"  >my-kyma.yaml
    
  3. The output of this operation is the my_kyma.yaml file. Use it to deploy Kyma on your GKE cluster.

Using your own image

  1. Checkout kyma-project and enter the root folder.

  2. Build an image that is based on the current installer image and includes the current installation and resources charts. Run:

     docker build -t kyma-installer:latest -f kyma-installer/kyma.Dockerfile . --build-arg INSTALLER_VERSION=63484523
    
  3. Push the image to your Docker Hub:

     docker tag kyma-installer:latest [YOUR_DOCKER_LOGIN]/kyma-installer:latest
    
     docker push [YOUR_DOCKER_LOGIN]/kyma-installer:latest
    
  4. Prepare the deployment file:

     cat installation/resources/installer.yaml <(echo -e "
    ---") installation/resources/installer-config-cluster.yaml.tpl  <(echo -e "
    ---") installation/resources/installer-cr-cluster.yaml.tpl | sed -e "s/__DOMAIN__/$DOMAIN/g" |sed -e "s/__TLS_CERT__/$TLS_CERT/g" | sed -e "s/__TLS_KEY__/$TLS_KEY/g" | sed -e "s/__.*__//g" > my-kyma.yaml
    
  5. The output of this operation is the my_kyma.yaml file. Modify it to fetch the proper image with the changes you made ([YOUR_DOCKER_LOGIN]/kyma-installer:latest). Use the modified file to deploy Kyma on your GKE cluster.

Deploy Kyma

  1. Configure kubectl to use your new cluster. Run: add yourself as the cluster admin, and deploy Kyma installer with your configuration.
     gcloud container clusters get-credentials $CLUSTER_NAME --zone europe-west1-b --project $PROJECT
    
  2. Add your account as the cluster administrator:
     kubectl create clusterrolebinding cluster-admin-binding --clusterrole=cluster-admin --user=$(gcloud config get-value account)
    
  3. Deploy Kyma using the my-kyma custom configuration file you created. Run:
     kubectl apply -f my-kyma.yaml
    
  4. Check if the Pods of Tiller and the Kyma installer are running:

     kubectl get pods --all-namespaces
    
  5. Start Kyma installation:

     kubectl label installation/kyma-installation action=install
    
  6. To watch the installation progress, run:

     kubectl get pods --all-namespaces -w
    

Configure DNS for the cluster load balancer

Run these commands:

export EXTERNAL_PUBLIC_IP=$(kubectl get service -n istio-system istio-ingressgateway -o jsonpath="{.status.loadBalancer.ingress[0].ip}")

export REMOTE_ENV_IP=$(kubectl get service -n kyma-system application-connector-nginx-ingress-controller -o jsonpath="{.status.loadBalancer.ingress[0].ip}")

gcloud dns --project=$PROJECT record-sets transaction start --zone=$DNS_ZONE

gcloud dns --project=$PROJECT record-sets transaction add $EXTERNAL_PUBLIC_IP --name=*.$DOMAIN. --ttl=60 --type=A --zone=$DNS_ZONE

gcloud dns --project=$PROJECT record-sets transaction add $REMOTE_ENV_IP --name=gateway.$DOMAIN. --ttl=60 --type=A --zone=$DNS_ZONE

gcloud dns --project=$PROJECT record-sets transaction execute --zone=$DNS_ZONE

Prepare your Kyma deployment for production use

To use the cluster in a production environment, it is recommended you configure a new server-side certificate for the Application Connector and replace the placeholder certificate it installs with. If you don't generate a new certificate, the system uses the placeholder certificate. As a result, the security of your implementation is compromised.

Follow this steps to configure a new, more secure certificate suitable for production use.

  1. Generate a new certificate and key. Run:

     openssl req -new -newkey rsa:4096 -nodes -keyout ca.key -out ca.csr -subj "/C=PL/ST=N/L=GLIWICE/O=SAP Hybris/OU=Kyma/CN=wormhole.kyma.cx"
    
     openssl x509 -req -sha256 -days 365 -in ca.csr -signkey ca.key -out ca.pem
    
  2. Export the certificate and key to environment variables:

     export AC_CRT=$(cat ./ca.pem | base64 | base64)
     export AC_KEY=$(cat ./ca.key | base64 | base64)
    
    
  3. Prepare installation file with the following command:

     cat kyma-config-cluster.yaml | sed -e "s/__DOMAIN__/$DOMAIN/g" |sed -e "s/__TLS_CERT__/$TLS_CERT/g" | sed -e "s/__TLS_KEY__/$TLS_KEY/g" | sed -e "s/__REMOTE_ENV_CA__/$AC_CRT/g" | sed -e "s/__REMOTE_ENV_CA_KEY__/$AC_KEY/g" |sed -e "s/__.*__//g"  >my-kyma.yaml
    

Local installation scripts

This document extends the Install Kyma locally from sources guide with a detailed breakdown of the alternative local installation method which is the run.sh script.

The following snippet is the main element of the run.sh script:

if [[ ! $SKIP_MINIKUBE_START ]]; then
    bash $CURRENT_DIR/../scripts/minikube.sh --domain "$DOMAIN" --vm-driver "$VM_DRIVER"
fi

bash $CURRENT_DIR/../scripts/build-kyma-installer.sh --vm-driver "$VM_DRIVER"

bash $CURRENT_DIR/../scripts/generate-local-config.sh

if [ -z "$CR_PATH" ]; then

    TMPDIR=`mktemp -d "$CURRENT_DIR/../../temp-XXXXXXXXXX"`
    CR_PATH="$TMPDIR/installer-cr-local.yaml"

    bash $CURRENT_DIR/../scripts/create-cr.sh --output "$CR_PATH" --domain "$DOMAIN"
    bash $CURRENT_DIR/../scripts/installer.sh --local --cr "$CR_PATH"

    rm -rf $TMPDIR
else
    bash $CURRENT_DIR/../scripts/installer.sh --cr "$CR_PATH"
fi

Subsequent sections provide details of all involved subscripts, in the order in which the run.sh script triggers them.

The minikube.sh script

NOTE: To work with Kyma, use only the provided scripts and commands. Kyma does not work on a basic Minikube cluster that you can start using the minikube start command or stop with the minikube stop command. If you don't need Kyma on Minikube anymore, remove the cluster with the minikube delete command.

The purpose of the installation/scripts/minikube.sh script is to configure and start Minikube. The script also checks if your development environment is configured to handle the Kyma installation. This includes checking Minikube and kubectl versions. If Minikube is already initialized, the system prompts you to agree to remove the previous Minikube cluster. The script exits if you do not want to restart your cluster.

Minikube is configured to disable the default Nginx Ingress Controller.

NOTE: For the complete list of parameters passed to the minikube start command, refer to the installation/scripts/minikube.sh script.

Once Minikube is up and running, the script adds local installation entries to /etc/hosts.

The build-kyma-installer.sh script

The Installer is an application based on a Kubernetes operator. Its purpose is to install Helm charts defined in the Installation custom resource. The Kyma-Installer is a Docker image that bundles the Installer binary with Kyma charts.

The installation/scripts/build-kyma-installer.sh script extracts the Kyma-Installer image name from the installer.yaml deployment file and uses it to build a Docker image inside Minikube. This image contains local Kyma sources from the resources folder.

NOTE: For the Kyma-Installer Docker image details, refer to the kyma-installer/kyma.Dockerfile file.

The generate-local-config.sh script

The generate-local-config.sh script configures optional subcomponents. At the moment, only the Azure Broker is an optional subcomponent of the core deployment.

The Azure Broker subcomponent is part of the core deployment that provisions managed services in the Microsoft Azure cloud. To enable the Azure Broker, export the following environment variables:

  • AZURE_BROKER_SUBSCRIPTION_ID
  • AZURE_BROKER_TENANT_ID
  • AZURE_BROKER_CLIENT_ID
  • AZURE_BROKER_CLIENT_SECRET

NOTE: You need to export above environment variables before executing the installation/cmd/run.sh script. As the Azure credentials are converted to a Kubernetes Secret, make sure the exported values are base64-encoded.

The create-cr.sh script

The installation/scripts/create-cr.sh script prepares the Installation custom resource from the installation/resources/installer-cr.yaml.tpl template. The local installation scenario uses the default Installation custom resource. The Kyma-Installer already contains local Kyma resources bundled, thus url is ignored by the Installer component.

NOTE: For the Installation custom resource details, refer to the Installation document.

The installer.sh script

The installation/scripts/installer.sh script creates the default RBAC role, installs Tiller, and deploys the Kyma-Installer component.

NOTE: For the Kyma-Installer deployment details, refer to the installation/resources/installer.yaml file.

The script applies the Installation custom resource and marks it with the action=install label, which triggers the Kyma installation.

NOTE: The Kyma installation runs in the background. Execute the ./installation/scripts/is-installed.sh script to follow the installation process.

Install subcomponents

It is up to you to decide which subcomponents you install as part of the core release. By default, most of the core subcomponents are enabled. If you want to install only specific subcomponents, follow the steps that you need to perform before the local and cluster installation.

Install subcomponents locally

To specify whether to install a given core subcomponent on Minikube, use the manage-component.sh script before you trigger the Kyma installation. The script consumes two parameters:

  • the name of the core subcomponent
  • a Boolean value that determines whether to install the subcomponent (true) or not (false)

Example:

To enable the Azure Broker subcomponent, run the following command:

scripts/manage-component.sh azure-broker true

Alternatively, to disable the Azure Broker subcomponent, run this command:

scripts/manage-component.sh azure-broker false

Install subcomponents on a cluster

Install subcomponents on a cluster based on Helm conditions described in the requirements.yaml file. Read more about the fields in the requirements.yaml file here.

To specify whether to install a given core subcomponent, provide override values before you trigger the installation.

Example:

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: kyma-sub-components
  namespace: kyma-installer
  labels:
    installer: overrides
data:
  azure-broker.enabled: "true"

NOTE: Some subcomponents can require additional configuration to work properly.

Specify subcomponents versions

Versions of the Kyma components are specified in the values.yaml file in charts. Two properties, version and dir, describe each component version. The first one defines the actual docker image tag. The second property describes the directory under which the tagged image is pushed. It is optional and is followed by a forward slash (/).

Possible values of the dir property:

  • pr/ contains images built from the pull request
  • develop/ contains images built from the master branch
  • rc/ contains images built for a pre-release
  • (empty) contains images built for a release

To override subcomponents versions during Kyma startup, create the versions-overrides.env file in the installation directory.

The example overrides the Environments component and sets the image version to 0.0.1, based on the version from the develop directory.

Example:

global.environments.dir=develop/
global.environments.version=0.0.1

Reinstall Kyma

The custom scripts allow you to remove Kyma from a Minikube cluster and reinstall Kyma without removing the cluster.

NOTE: These scripts do not delete the cluster from your Minikube. This allows you to quickly reinstall Kyma.

  1. Use the clean-up.sh script to uninstall Kyma from the cluster. Run:

    scripts/clean-up.sh
    
  2. Run this script to reinstall Kyma on an existing cluster:

    cmd/run.sh --skip-minikube-start
    

Installation with custom Istio deployment

You can use Kyma with a custom deployment of Istio that you installed in the target environment. To enable such implementation, remove Istio from the list of components that install with Kyma. The version of your Istio deployment must match the version that Kyma currently supports.

In the installation process, the installer applies a custom patch to every Istio deployment. This is a mandatory step.

NOTE: To learn more, read the Istio patch document in the Service Mesh documentation topic.

Prerequisites

  • A live Istio version compatible with the version currently supported by Kyma. To check the supported version, see the resources/istio-kyma-patch/templates/job.yaml file.

    NOTE: Follow this quick start guide to learn how to install and configure Istio on a Kubernetes cluster.

  • Security enabled in your Istio deployment. To verify if security is enabled, check if the policies.authentication.istio.io custom resource exists in the cluster.

  • Kyma downloaded from the latest release.

Local installation

  1. Remove these lines from the kyma-config-local.yaml file:
    name: "istio"
    namespace: "istio-system"
    
  2. Follow the installation steps described in the Install Kyma locally from the release document.

Cluster installation

  1. Remove these lines from the kyma-config-cluster.yaml file:
    name: "istio"
    namespace: "istio-system"
    
  2. Follow the installation steps described in the Install Kyma on a GKE cluster document.

Verify the installation

  1. Check if all Pods are running in the kyma-system Namespace:
    kubectl get pods -n kyma-system
    
  2. Sign in to the Kyma Console using the `admin@kyma.cx` as described in the Install Kyma locally from the release document.

Sample service deployment on local

This Getting Started guide is intended for the developers who want to quickly learn how to deploy a sample service and test it with Kyma installed locally on Mac.

This guide uses a standalone sample service written in the Go language .

Prerequisites

To use the Kyma cluster and install the example, download these tools:

Steps

Deploy and expose a sample standalone service

Follow these steps:

  1. Deploy the sample service to any of your Environments. Use the stage Environment for this guide:

    kubectl create -n stage -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kyma-project/examples/master/http-db-service/deployment/deployment.yaml
    
  2. Create an unsecured API for your example service:

    kubectl apply -n stage -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kyma-project/examples/master/gateway/service/api-without-auth.yaml
    
  3. Add the IP address of Minikube to the hosts file on your local machine for your APIs:

    $ echo "$(minikube ip) http-db-service.kyma.local" | sudo tee -a /etc/hosts
    
  4. Access the service using the following call:

    curl -ik https://http-db-service.kyma.local/orders
    

    The system returns a response similar to the following:

    HTTP/2 200
    content-type: application/json;charset=UTF-8
    vary: Origin
    date: Mon, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
    content-length: 2
    x-envoy-upstream-service-time: 131
    server: envoy
    
    []
    

Update your service's API to secure it

Run the following command:

   kubectl apply -n stage -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kyma-project/examples/master/gateway/service/api-with-auth.yaml

After you apply this update, you must include a valid bearer ID token in the Authorization header to access the service.

NOTE: The update might take some time.

Sample service deployment on a cluster

This Getting Started guide is intended for the developers who want to quickly learn how to deploy a sample service and test it with the Kyma cluster.

This guide uses a standalone sample service written in the Go language.

Prerequisites

To use the Kyma cluster and install the example, download these tools:

Steps

Download configuration for kubectl

Follow these steps to download kubeconfig and configure kubectl to access the Kyma cluster:

  1. Access the Console UI and download the kubectl file from the settings page.
  2. Place downloaded file in the following location: $HOME/.kube/kubeconfig.
  3. Point kubectl to the configuration file using the terminal: export KUBECONFIG=$HOME/.kube/kubeconfig.
  4. Confirm kubectl is configured to use your cluster: kubectl cluster-info.

Set the cluster domain variable

The commands throughout this guide use URLs that require you to provide the domain of the cluster which you are using. To complete this configuration, set the variable yourClusterDomain to the domain of your cluster.

For example, if your cluster's domain is demo.cluster.kyma.cx, run the following command:

   export yourClusterDomain='demo.cluster.kyma.cx'

Deploy and expose a sample standalone service

Follow these steps:

  1. Deploy the sample service to any of your Environments. Use the stage Environment for this guide:

    kubectl create -n stage -f https://minio.$yourClusterDomain/content/root/kyma/assets/deployment.yaml
    
  2. Create an unsecured API for your service:

    curl -k https://minio.$yourClusterDomain/content/root/kyma/assets/api-without-auth.yaml |  sed "s/.kyma.local/.$yourClusterDomain/" | kubectl apply -n stage -f -
    
  3. Access the service using the following call:

    curl -ik https://http-db-service.$yourClusterDomain/orders
    

    The system returns a response similar to the following:

    HTTP/2 200
    content-type: application/json;charset=UTF-8
    vary: Origin
    date: Mon, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
    content-length: 2
    x-envoy-upstream-service-time: 131
    server: envoy
    
    []
    

Update your service's API to secure it

Run the following command:

   curl -k https://minio.$yourClusterDomain/content/root/kyma/assets/api-with-auth.yaml |  sed "s/.kyma.local/.$yourClusterDomain/" | kubectl apply -n stage -f -

After you apply this update, you must include a valid bearer ID token in the Authorization header to access the service.

NOTE: The update might take some time.

Develop a service locally without using Docker

You can develop services in the local Kyma installation without extensive Docker knowledge or a need to build and publish a Docker image. The minikube mount feature allows you to mount a directory from your local disk into the local Kubernetes cluster.

This guide shows how to use this feature, using the service example implemented in Golang.

Prerequisites

Install Golang.

Steps

Install the example on your local machine

  1. Install the example:
    go get -insecure github.com/kyma-project/examples/http-db-service
    
  2. Navigate to installed example and the http-db-service folder inside it:
    cd ~/go/src/github.com/kyma-project/examples/http-db-service
    
  3. Build the executable to run the application:
    CGO_ENABLED=0 GOOS=linux go build -a -installsuffix cgo -o main .
    

Mount the example directory into Minikube

For this step, you need a running local Kyma instance. Read the Install Kyma locally from the release Installation guide to learn how to install Kyma locally.

  1. Open the terminal window. Do not close it until the development finishes.
  2. Mount your local drive into Minikube:
    # Use the following pattern:
    minikube mount {LOCAL_DIR_PATH}:{CLUSTER_DIR_PATH}`
    # To follow this guide, call:
    minikube mount ~/go/src/github.com/kyma-project/examples/http-db-service:/go/src/github.com/kyma-project/examples/http-db-service
    

See the example and expected result:

# Terminal 1
$ minikube mount ~/go/src/github.com/kyma-project/examples/http-db-service:/go/src/github.com/kyma-project/examples/http-db-service

Mounting /Users/{USERNAME}/go/src/github.com/kyma-project/examples/http-db-service into /go/src/github.com/kyma-project/examples/http-db-service on the minikube VM
This daemon process must stay alive for the mount to still be accessible...
ufs starting

Run your local service inside Minikube

  1. Create Pod that uses the base Golang image to run your executable located on your local machine:
    # Terminal 2
    kubectl run mydevpod --image=golang:1.9.2-alpine --restart=Never -n stage --overrides='
    {
    "spec":{
       "containers":[
          {
             "name":"mydevpod",
             "image":"golang:1.9.2-alpine",
             "command": ["./main"],
             "workingDir":"/go/src/github.com/kyma-project/examples/http-db-service",
             "volumeMounts":[
                {
                   "mountPath":"/go/src/github.com/kyma-project/examples/http-db-service",
                   "name":"local-disk-mount"
                }
             ]
          }
       ],
       "volumes":[
          {
             "name":"local-disk-mount",
             "hostPath":{
                "path":"/go/src/github.com/kyma-project/examples/http-db-service"
             }
          }
       ]
    }
    }
    '
    
  2. Expose the Pod as a service from Minikube to verify it:
    kubectl expose pod mydevpod --name=mypodservice --port=8017 --type=NodePort -n stage
    
  3. Check the Minikube IP address and Port, and use them to access your service.
    # Get the IP address.
    minikube ip
    # See the example result: 192.168.64.44
    # Check the Port.
    kubectl get services -n stage
    # See the example result: mypodservice  NodePort 10.104.164.115  <none>  8017:32226/TCP  5m
    
  4. Call the service from your terminal.
    curl {minikube ip}:{port}/orders -v
    # See the example: curl http://192.168.64.44:32226/orders -v
    # The command returns an empty array.
    

Modify the code locally and see the results immediately in Minikube

  1. Edit the main.go file by adding a new test endpoint to the startService function
    router.HandleFunc("/test", func (w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
     w.Write([]byte("test"))
    })
    
  2. Build a new executable to run the application inside Minikube:
    CGO_ENABLED=0 GOOS=linux go build -a -installsuffix cgo -o main .
    
  3. Replace the existing Pod with the new version:
    kubectl get pod mydevpod -n stage -o yaml | kubectl replace --force -f -
    
  4. Call the new test endpoint of the service from your terminal. The command returns the Test string:
    curl http://192.168.64.44:32226/test -v
    

Publish a service Docker image and deploy it to Kyma

In the Getting Started guide for local development of a service, you can learn how to develop a service locally. You can immediately see all the changes made in the local Kyma installation based on Minikube, without building a Docker image and publishing it to a Docker registry, such as the Docker Hub.

Using the same example service, this guide explains how to build a Docker image for your service, publish it to the Docker registry, and deploy it to the local Kyma installation. The instructions base on Minikube, but you can also use the image that you create, and the Kubernetes resource definitions that you use on the Kyma cluster.

NOTE: The deployment works both on local Kyma installation and on the Kyma cluster.

Steps

Build a Docker image

The http-db-service example used in this guide provides you with the Dockerfile necessary for building Docker images. Examine the Dockerfile to learn how it looks and how it uses the Docker Multistaging feature, but do not use it one-to-one for production. There might be custom LABEL attributes with values to override.

  1. In your terminal, go to the examples/http-db-service directory. If you did not follow the Sample service deployment on local guide and you do not have this directory locally, get the http-db-service example from the examples repository.
  2. Run the build with ./build.sh.

NOTE: Ensure that the new image builds and is available in your local Docker registry by calling docker images. Find an image called example-http-db-service and tagged as latest.

Register the image in the Docker Hub

This guide bases on Docker Hub. However, there are many other Docker registries available. You can use a private Docker registry, but it must be available in the Internet. For more details about using a private Docker registry, see the How to deploy a Docker image from a private registry document.

  1. Open the Docker Hub webpage.
  2. Provide all of the required details and sign up.

Sign in to the Docker Hub registry in the terminal

  1. Call docker login.
  2. Provide the username and password, and select the ENTER key.

Push the image to the Docker Hub

  1. Tag the local image with a proper name required in the registry: docker tag example-http-db-service {username}/example-http-db-service:0.0.1.
  2. Push the image to the registry: docker push {username}/example-http-db-service:0.0.1. `shell #This is how it looks in the terminal

The push refers to repository [docker.io/{username}/example-http-db-service] 4302273b9e11: Pushed 5835bd463c0e: Pushed 0.0.1: digest: sha256:9ec28342806f50b92c9b42fa36d979c0454aafcdda6845b362e2efb9816d1439 size: 734 `

NOTE: To verify if the image is successfully published, check if it is available online at the following address: https://hub.docker.com/r/{username}/example-http-db-service/

Deploy to Kyma

The http-db-service example contains sample Kubernetes resource definitions needed for the basic Kyma deployment. Find them in the deployment folder. Perform the following modifications to use your newly-published image in the local Kyma installation:

  1. Go to the deployment directory.
  2. Edit the deployment.yaml file. Change the image attribute to {username}/example-http-db-service:0.0.1.
  3. Create the new resources in local Kyma using these commands: kubectl create -f deployment.yaml -n stage && kubectl create -f ingress.yaml -n stage.
  4. Edit your /etc/hosts to add the new http-db-service.kyma.local host to the list of hosts associated with your minikube ip. Follow these steps:
    • Open a terminal window and run: sudo vim /etc/hosts
    • Select the i key to insert a new line at the top of the file.
    • Add this line: {YOUR.MINIKUBE.IP} http-db-service.kyma.local
    • Type :wq and select the Enter key to save the changes.
  5. Run this command to check if you can access the service: curl https://http-db-service.kyma.local/orders. The response should return an empty array.

Helm overrides for Kyma installation

Kyma packages its components into Helm charts that the Installer uses. This document describes how to configure the Installer with override values for Helm charts.

Overview

The Installer is a Kubernetes Operator that uses Helm to install Kyma components. Helm provides an overrides feature to customize the installation of charts, such as to configure environment-specific values. When using Installer for Kyma installation, users can't interact with Helm directly. The installation is not an interactive process.

To customize the Kyma installation, the Installer exposes a generic mechanism to configure Helm overrides called user-defined overrides.

User-defined overrides

The Installer finds user-defined overrides by reading the ConfigMaps and Secrets deployed in the kyma-installer Namespace and marked with the installer:overrides Label.

The Installer constructs a single override by inspecting the ConfigMap or Secret entry key name. The key name should be a dot-separated sequence of strings corresponding to the structure of keys in the chart's values.yaml file or the entry in chart's template. See the examples below.

Installer merges all overrides recursively into a single YAML stream and passes it to Helm during the Kyma installation/upgrade operation.

Common vs component overides

The Installer looks for available overrides each time a component installation or update operation is due. Overrides for the component are composed from two sets: common overrides and component-specific overrides.

Kyma uses common overrides for the installation of all components. ConfigMaps and Secrets marked with the label installer:overrides, contain the definition. They require no additional label.

Kyma uses component-specific overrides only for the installation of specific components. ConfigMaps and Secrets marked with both installer:overrides and component: <name> Labels, where <name> is the component name, contain the definition. Component-specific overrides have precedence over Common ones in case of conflicting entries.

Overrides Examples

Top-level charts overrides

Overrides for top-level charts are straightforward. Just use the template value from the chart (without leading ".Values." prefix) as the entry key in the ConfigMap or Secret.

Example:

The Installer uses a core top-level chart that contains a template with the following value reference:

memory: {{ .Values.test.acceptance.ui.requests.memory }}

The chart's default value test.acceptance.ui.requests.memory in the values.yaml file resolves the template. The following fragment of values.yaml shows this definition:

test:
  acceptance:
    ui:
      requests:
        memory: "1Gi"

To override this value, for example to "2Gi", proceed as follows:

  • Create a ConfigMap in the kyma-installer Namespace, labelled with: installer:overrides (or reuse an existing one).
  • Add an entry test.acceptance.ui.requests.memory: 2Gi to the map.

Once the installation starts, the Installer generates overrides based on the map entries. The system uses the value of "2Gi" instead of the default "1Gi" from the chart values.yaml file.

For overrides that the system should keep in Secrets, just define a Secret object instead of a ConfigMap with the same key and a base64-encoded value. Be sure to label the Secret with installer:overrides.

Sub-chart overrides

Overrides for sub-charts follow the same convention as top-level charts. However, overrides require additional information about sub-chart location.

When a sub-chart contains the values.yaml file, the information about the chart location is not necessary because the chart and it's values.yaml file are on the same level in the directory hierarchy.

The situation is different when the Installer installs a chart with sub-charts. All template values for a sub-chart must be prefixed with a sub-chart "path" that is relative to the top-level "parent" chart.

This is not an Installer-specific requirement. The same considerations apply when you provide overrides manually using the helm command-line tool.

Here is an example. There's a core top-level chart, that the Installer installs. There's an application-connector sub-chart in core with another nested sub-chart: connector-service. In one of its templates there's a following fragment (shortened):

spec:
  containers:
  - name: {{ .Chart.Name }}
    args:
      - "/connectorservice"
      - '--appName={{ .Chart.Name }}'
      - "--domainName={{ .Values.global.domainName }}"
      - "--tokenExpirationMinutes={{ .Values.deployment.args.tokenExpirationMinutes }}"

The following fragment of the values.yaml file in connector-service chart defines the default value for tokenExpirationMinutes:

deployment:
  args:
    tokenExpirationMinutes: 60

To override this value, such as to change "60 to "90", do the following:

  • Create a ConfigMap in the kyma-installer Namespace labeled with installer:overrides or reuse existing one.
  • Add an entry application-connector.connector-service.deployment.args.tokenExpirationMinutes: 90 to the map.

Notice that the user-provided override key now contains two parts:

  • The chart "path" inside the top-level core chart: application-connector.connector-service
  • The original template value reference from the chart without the .Values. prefix: deployment.args.tokenExpirationMinutes.

Once the installation starts, the Installer generates overrides based on the map entries. The system uses the value of "90" instead of the default value of "60" from the values.yaml chart file.

Global overrides

There are several important parameters usually shared across the charts. Helm convention to provide these requires the use of the global override key. For example, to define the global.domain override, just use "global.domain" as the name of the key in ConfigMap or Secret for the Installer.

Once the installation starts, the Installer merges all of the map entries and collects all of the global entries under the global top-level key to use for installation.

Values and types

Installer generally recognizes all override values as strings. It internally renders overrides to Helm as a YAML stream with only string values.

There is one exception to this rule with respect to handling booleans: The system converts "true" or "false" strings that it encounters to a corresponding boolean value (true/false).

Merging and conflicting entries

When the Installer encounters two overrides with the same key prefix, it tries to merge them. If both of them represent a map (they have nested sub-keys), their nested keys are recursively merged. If at least one of keys points to a final value, the Installer performs the merge in a non-deterministic order, so either one of the overrides is rendered in the final YAML data.

It is important to avoid overrides having the same keys for final values.

Example of non-conflicting merge:

Two overrides with a common key prefix ("a.b"):

"a.b.c": "first"
"a.b.d": "second"

The Installer yields correct output:

a:
  b:
    c: first
    d: second

Example of conflicting merge:

Two overrides with the same key ("a.b"):

"a.b": "first"
"a.b": "second"

The Installer yields either:

a:
  b: "first"

Or (due to non-deterministic merge order):

a:
  b: "second"

Installation

The installations.installer.kyma-project.io Custom Resource Definition (CRD) is a detailed description of the kind of data and the format used to control the Kyma Installer, a proprietary solution based on the Kubernetes operator principles. To get the up-to-date CRD and show the output in the yaml format, run this command:

kubectl get crd installations.installer.kyma-project.io -o yaml

Sample Custom Resource

This is a sample CR that controls the Kyma installer. This example has the action label set to install, which means that it triggers the installation of Kyma. The name and namespace fields in the components array define which components you install and Namespaces in which you install them. This example shows that you install the hmc-default release of the remote-environments component in the kyma-integration Namespace.

NOTE: See the installer-cr.yaml.tpl file in the /installation/resources directory for the complete list of Kyma components.

apiVersion: "installer.kyma-project.io/v1alpha1"
kind: Installation
metadata:
  name: kyma-installation
  labels:
    action: install
  finalizers:
    - finalizer.installer.kyma-project.io
spec:
  version: "1.0.0"
  url: "https://sample.url.com/kyma_release.tar.gz"
  components: 
    - name: "cluster-essentials"
      namespace: "kyma-system"
    - name: "istio"
      namespace: "istio-system"
    - name: "prometheus-operator"
      namespace: "kyma-system"
    - name: "provision-bundles"
    - name: "dex"
      namespace: "kyma-system"
    - name: "core"
      namespace: "kyma-system"
    - name: "remote-environments"
      namespace: "kyma-integration"
      release: "ec-default"
    - name: "remote-environments"
      namespace: "kyma-integration"
      release: "hmc-default"

Custom resource parameters

This table lists all the possible parameters of a given resource together with their descriptions:

Field Mandatory Description
metadata.name YES Specifies the name of the CR.
metadata.labels.action YES Defines the behavior of the Kyma installer. Available options are install and uninstall.
metadata.finalizers NO Protects the CR from deletion. Read this Kubernetes document to learn more about finalizers.
spec.version NO When manually installing Kyma on a cluster, specify any valid SemVer notation string.
spec.url YES Specifies the location of the Kyma sources tar.gz package. For example, for the master branch of Kyma, the address is https://github.com/kyma-project/kyma/archive/master.tar.gz
spec.components YES Lists which components of Helm chart components to install or update.
spec.components.name YES Specifies the name of the component which is the same as the name of the component subdirectory in the resources directory.
spec.components.namespace YES Defines the Namespace in which you want the Installer to install, or update the component.
spec.components.release NO Provides the name of the Helm release. The default parameter is the component name.